Italian Politics and Government Structure


For expatriates moving to Italy, gaining an insight into its political system is crucial. This guide provides a detailed overview of the Italian governmental framework, political climate, major political parties, and the electoral process.

The Italian Government and Political System

Italy is a parliamentary republic with a robust multi-party system, established under the 1948 Constitution. The nation’s political structure is headed by the President, who is the Chief of State, while the government, led by the Prime Minister, holds executive powers.

Legislative powers are vested in a bicameral parliament consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Italy’s political landscape is also characterized by its regional divisions, with certain regions holding greater autonomy.

Current Political Leadership

As of the latest general election in 2022, Giorgia Meloni, representing the Brothers of Italy (FdI), serves as the Prime Minister. Italy’s Head of State is President Sergio Mattarella, re-elected in 2022.

Major Political Parties

Italy’s political parties cover a broad spectrum from left to right. Leading the charge is the Brothers of Italy (FdI), a right-wing party that champions national conservative policies. Other significant parties include:

  • League (Lega): A right-wing party with a focus on nationalism and reducing immigration.
  • Democratic Party (PD): A center-left party that supports social democracy and progressive policies.
  • Five Star Movement (M5S): A party that defies traditional political classification, advocating for direct democracy and environmentalism.
  • Forza Italia: A center-right party led by former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, known for its pro-European stance.

The Electoral System

Italy employs a mixed electoral system that combines first-past-the-post and proportional representation. This system is used to elect the members of both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.

Voting in Italy

All Italian citizens aged 18 and above are eligible to vote. Italy also permits EU citizens residing in the country to vote in European and local elections, under certain conditions.

Judiciary System in Italy

The Italian judiciary is independent of the other branches of government. The judicial system is structured into several tiers, culminating in the Supreme Court of Cassation, the highest court in Italy.

Recent Reforms and Political Tensions

The Italian political landscape has seen significant reforms and notable political tensions in recent years. This includes electoral reform and constitutional changes that have altered the parliamentary seat allocation. Political debates often center around economic policies, immigration, and Italy’s role within the European Union.

Grassroots Politics and Activism

There is a vibrant culture of political activism in Italy, with numerous grassroots movements active across the political spectrum. These movements often tackle issues ranging from environmentalism to social justice and workers’ rights.

Useful Resources

For those seeking deeper engagement or more detailed information about Italian politics and government:

This guide is part of an ongoing effort to assist those relocating to Italy in understanding the complex yet fascinating world of Italian politics and governance.

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